The EU is founded on the principle of diversity of cultures, customs and beliefs. This includes languages. On a continent where so many languages are spoken, this is natural.
The official languages of EU countries alone represent three language families: Indo-European, Finno-Ugric and Semitic. And compared to other continents, this is relatively few. Linguistic diversity has become more visible than ever because people now have much more contact with foreigners than ever before. They increasingly face situations where they have to speak languages other than their own, whether through student exchanges, migration and business in Europe’s increasingly integrated market, tourism or even general globalisation.
Why Desktop Publishing?
Yes, I know. Desktop publishing often gets a bad rap in design circles. And actually, the bad rap is deserved. Many desktop publishers never learn anything about design. They believe if they know the desktop publishing software, then they must know how to design. Uhm, NO! Using design software is not the same as designing an attractive project.
I created this lens for the desktop publisher who wants to learn a bit about design. The person I'm talking about may need to design a professional-looking business card or a nice newsletter.
If your goal is to work for a professional ad agency, design million dollar ads, or have your work appear in a glossy design magazine, then this lens will be elementary to you. But for the rest of us, we need to know just enough to create attractive documents.
What need about fonts?
Did you know that having too many fonts installed could slow your computer? Yup, it's true. It's recommended that you install no more than 500 fonts at a time. Of course, you can always add and remove them at will.
Many people never think twice about the fonts on their computers. As far as they're concerned, they only have one font, and it's usually Times New Roman. However, many desktop publishers love fonts. I know I do. I study fonts, and search for new fonts to install. There are plenty of ways to find cool new fonts, but how can you keep track of all your pre
Font management software. This software allows you to view the fonts on your computer, let's you load the ones you want, and uninstall those you don't want. A font management program should work with any and all fonts. You should be able to install and uninstall fonts. The display should show how a font looks at different sizes, and in different styles (like bold or italic).
Fonts and font managements.
Essential Office Font Pack 2
Platform: Windows XP
- Stunning 3D Effects
- Advanced font manager
- 2000 True Type Fonts included in package
- 3 Font products in one package
- Easy one click installation
Our Favorite DTP Programs.
- Adobe Illustrator. This started it all for me. The learning curve is steep, but it's worth every minute. This is great for working with graphics for print projects. If I could work with this program all day, I would.
- Adobe InDesign. This program is great because it works well with Adobe Illustrator. If you've used Quark, then you'll also enjoy InDesign. It's a page layout program.
- Adobe Photoshop. This is the best image editing software I've used. You can also design web graphics with it, but I've never used it for that. Desktop publishers work with photos all the time, so learning this program is a good idea.
- I've tried the following programs as well. I don't use them anymore, but you might want to check them out: Paint Shop Pro, Corel Draw, Quark, Microsoft Publisher, and PageMaker.There are plenty of desktop publishing programs available (for various prices), so shop around until you find what works for you.
Microsoft Word Goodies for Desktop Publishers.
Business Card Tips.
There are some cool graphics hidden in Microsoft Word. Well, they're not hidden, but not many people use them. I'm talking about picture fonts.
Picture fonts offer a variety of images you can use in desktop publishing projects. You may have to alter the images and dress them up a bit, but they're a great resource for images. The picture fonts in Microsoft Word are: Webdings, Wingdings 1 and 2
Business cards are fun to design, but they're harder to design than most people realize. Small doesn't equal easy! Here are some great tips for designing an attractive, but functional, business card.
5 Things Desktop Publishers Should Know.
- Business cards have four corners, but it's ok to leave them empty. Your card will look way too busy if all the corners are crammed with text. In fact, it's a great idea to have empty space. You don't have to fill the entire card!
- Try to avoid centered layouts. A lot of desktop publishers love centered layouts. I don't know why, especially when there are so many other options. Be creative with your business card layouts. It's ok to try right alignment or left alignment.
- Experiment with format. Your can be horizontal or vertical. Pick the format which works best with your information. If you have the budget, you can even get oddly-shaped business cards.
- Stick to one or two fonts. This is very important. A with more than two different fonts always looks bad. Also, the important information on the card should be in a larger font. The business name and name of the person is usually larger than the address, phone number, or email.
Have you already started designing that newsletter, brochure, or business card? Or are you about to begin? That's fine, but keep the following tips in mind. They could help save your design.
- Stick with one or two fonts per project. I love fonts, and it's easy to get carried away when you have thousands to choose from. Fight the urge! The more fonts you crowd into a project, the worse things look.
- Fall in love with white space. White space is the area on a page that contains no text or graphics. Some beginning desktop publishers mistakenly think every inch of a page should be covered with text or graphics. No, no. White space is your friend. White space creates a clean page, and provides rest for your reader's eyes.
- Avoid information overload. Too much information will ruin any project. You dont have to tell your readers every little thing about the business or product. Eliminate any information that doesn't serve a specific purpose.
- Keep design elements to a minimum. You can go design crazy with Photoshop and Illustrator, but just because you can do something doesn't mean you should. It's not necessary to include drop shadows, bold text, underlines, colored text, and colored text boxes all in one project. Be tasteful. Choose one or two defining design elements per project, and stick with them.
Define a style. All pages of a project, either web or print, should fit together. Each project should have a personality that flows from one page to the next. Decide on a font for headlines, text, and subheads. Decide which colors will be used within the project. Decide on text alignment. You get the idea. Basically, you want each project to look like a cohesive unit.
DTP: Word Processors.
Packages like Microsoft Word and Corel WordPerfect include formatting facilities (fonts, line spacing, paragraphing, etc.), spell- and grammar-checkers-checkers but the page layout is fairly basic. They will serve for simple booklets but not book-length documents with more than text. Problems arise when you need to flow text around complicated arrangements, add appendices and make changes quickly. Not all commercial printers accept their file formats.
DTP: page Layout Programs.
This is desktop publishing proper, and the programs allow for the integration of text and images on the page, easy manipulation of page elements, creation of artistic layouts and multi-page publications such as newsletters and books. High-end features include separations, imposition, and fine typographic controls. Not all are expensive and difficult to learn. Some suggestions:
Home Publishing: The Print Shop, Sierra Print Artist
Small Business Publishing: Microsoft Office Publisher, Adobe PageMaker, Serif PagePlus
Professional Page Layout: Adobe InDesign, QuarkXPress Long Document
Long Documents: Adobe FrameMaker, Corel Ventura
Business Publishing: Adobe FrameMaker, Corel Ventura, QuarkXPress
Database Publishing: Adobe FrameMaker, Corel Ventura, QuarkXPress
Desktop Publishing: Graphics Programs
Poetry books are mostly text, but there's no reason why they shouldn't be made more appealing with illustrations and well chosen photos.
Illustration programs work with vector graphics formats, which allow more flexibility when creating drawings that have to be resized or go through multiple edits. Well known programs include Adobe Illustrator, CorelDRAW, and Macromedia Freehand.
Image editing programs, also called paint programs or photo editors, work with bitmap images, which are needed for work with photos, scans, or other "realistic" images. They are also best for web graphics. Well known programs include Adobe Photoshop, Corel Photo-Paint and Jasc Paint Shop Pro.
How many languages does the European Union work in?
The European Union has 23 official languages: Bulgarian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish.
Why does the European Union use so many official languages?
The EU is a democratic organisation so it has to communicate with its citizens in their languages, not to mention the Member States' governments and civil services, businesses and other organisations all over the EU. The public have a right to know what is being done in their name and must also be able to play an active part without having to learn other people's languages. And the European Union passes laws which are directly binding on everyone in the EU, so everybody in the EU, both citizens and the courts, must be able to understand them, which means they must be available in all the official languages. The use of the official languages enhances the transparency, legitimacy and effectiveness of the EU and its institutions. The legal basis for the EU's language policy is Council Regulation No 1 of 1958 determining the languages to be used by the European Economic Community, as amended, which lists the official languages and specifies when and for what purposes they are to be used. The European Community Treaty also enshrines in primary law the principle that the EU institutions must communicate with its correspondents in the Member States in the official language chosen by the correspondents.
What about other languages spoken in Member States e.g. Luxembourgish, Catalan, Welsh, Basque, Breton, Sardinian?
By agreement with the Spanish Government, certain texts are available in Catalan/Valencian, Basque and Galician.
Luxembourgish, the national language of Luxembourg, and regional languages of some Member States such as Welsh, Sami, Sardinian and Breton have not been put forward for official EU language status by the governments of the respective Member States.
Why not adopt a single official language for the European Union?
Because it would cut off most people in the EU from an understanding of what the EU was doing. Whichever language were chosen for such a role, most EU citizens would not understand it well enough to comply with its laws or avail themselves of their rights, or be able to express themselves in it well enough to play any part in EU affairs. And which language would you choose? - The EU language with the largest number of native speakers is German. But it is not widely used outside Germany and Austria. - The EU languages with the largest number of native speakers in the world are Spanish and Portuguese - but most of those speakers are not in Europe. - French is the official language, or one of the official languages, of three Member States, it is spoken in many parts of the world and taught in many EU schools: but it is much more widely known in southern and western Europe than in the north or east of the continent. - Of the EU languages, English is the most widely known as either the first or second language in the EU: but recent surveys show that still fewer than half the EU population have any usable knowledge of it.
What languages is the EUROPA website available in?
EUROPA aims to provide you with the information you are looking for in your own language or in a language you can understand, depending on the nature of the information. Official documents are available in at least the languages which were official at the date of publication. Other documents, of a non legally binding nature, are frequently published in English, French and German. General information on the homepage, the sections immediately accessible from the homepage and the indexes are, as far as possible, available in the twenty languages which were the official languages of the European Union before 1 January 2007: Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish and Swedish.. General information in the three new official languages of the European Union of 27 (Bulgarian, Irish and Romanian) will become available as the necessary translation capacity increases. Exceptions to this general rule are only made for information that is urgent or has a very short life. Specialised information is generally available in at least two languages, the ones most commonly used by the audience the information is intended for.
What is translation?
Translating and interpreting are often confused. A translator works on written texts (e.g. novels, user instructions, letters, subtitles, websites) while an interpreter renders the spoken words of someone else in another language.
Most translations are "pragmatic" (manuals, official reports, financial reports, etc.) while others are broadly "literary" (poems, novels, essays, etc.).
Depending on the type of text, the translation may call for technical knowledge of some kind, for instance in electronics, finance, medicine, chemistry or botany, or knowledge of cultural or stylistic factors (to be able to match a rhyme or word-play).
Today, people learn foreign languages more often than in the past. However, the need for translation has not disappeared. On the contrary, phenomena such as globalisation and the rapid pace of technological development, with the related need for user guides for emerging new products, as well as increasing numbers of TV channels, have increased the amount of translation needed.
As regards the value of machine translation, it can give you a rough idea of what is meant by a text written in a language you have no knowledge of at all, but the risk of misunderstanding is quite high. Proper translation must take account of context, structure and grammatical rules, style, and potential double meanings from synonyms and plays on words. This is why language?related technology should be seen as a tool for human translators, not a replacement for them.
Translation in the European institutions concerns legislative, policy and administrative documents, which are complex and highly formal in form and content. In such translation, repetition and strict adherence to layout and stylistic rules are signs of good practice. Electronic translation support tools are very useful for this purpose.
Translation and the European Union?
A multilingual system like the EU relies on professional linguists to keep it running smoothly. The role of the language services in the various EU institutions and bodies is to support and strengthen multilingual communication in Europe and to help Europeans understand EU policies. In particular, the work of written translators enables the EU to meet its legal obligations in terms of communicating with the public.
The links on this page will take you to those translation services which have their own website. The EU passes laws that are directly binding on individuals and companies, and as a matter of simple natural justice, they and their national courts must be able to read these laws in a language they can understand. More broadly, every citizen in the EU is entitled and encouraged to make a contribution to the cause of European integration, and they must be able to do this in their own language.
The work of the EU’s institutional translation enhances the EU’s openness, legitimacy and efficiency. Their precise tasks and working methods vary depending on the role of each institution.
The EU has 27 member contries and 23 official languages. This multilingual arrangement is unique in the world, and to some the extra work it generates may, at first sight, seem to outweigh the advantages. But there are special reasons for it. The EU passes laws that are directly binding on its citizens and companies, and as a matter of simple natural justice, they and their national courts must be able to read these laws in a language they can understand. More broadly, every citizen in the EU is entitled and encouraged to make a contribution to the cause of European integration, and they must be able to do this in their own language.
This is especially true in the European Parliament, where MEPs elected by the public discuss proposed laws, as well as in the many expert groups helping the Commission in its work. This is why the EU institutions employ many conference interpreters. As opposed to translation, interpreting deals exclusively with verbal communication - rendering a message from one language into another, naturally and fluently, adopting the delivery, tone and convictions of the speaker and speaking in the first person.
Click the links in the left-hand column for information on the different aspects of interpreting for the EU.
A brief history of TrueType.
The TrueType digital font format was originally designed by Apple Computer, Inc. It was a means of avoiding per-font royalty payments to the owners of other font technologies, and a solution to some of the technical limitations of Adobe's Type 1 format.
Originally code named "Bass" (because these were scalable fonts and you can scale a fish), and later "Royal", the TrueType format was designed to be efficient in storage and processing, and extensible. It was also built to allow the use of approaches already in use in the font industry as well as the development of new hinting techniques, enabling the easy conversion of already existing fonts to the TrueType format. This degree of flexibility in TrueType's implementation of hinting makes it extremely powerful when designing characters for display on the screen. Microsoft had also been looking for an outline format to solve similar problems, and Apple agreed to license TrueType to Microsoft.
Apple included full TrueType support in its Macintosh operating system, System 7, in May 1991. Its more recent development efforts include TrueType GX, which extends the TrueType format as part of the new graphics architecture QuickDraw GX for the MacOS. TrueType GX includes some Apple-only extensions to the font format, supporting Style Variations and the Line Layout Manager.
Microsoft first included TrueType in Windows 3.1, in April 1992. Soon afterwards, Microsoft began rewriting the TrueType rasterizer to improve its efficiency and performance and remove some bugs (while maintaining compatibility with the earlier version). The new TrueType rasterizer, version 1.5, first shipped in Windows NT 3.1. There have since been some minor revisions, and the version in Windows 95 and NT 3.51 is version 1.66. The new capabilities include enhanced features such as (or more technically, grayscale rasterization).
Microsoft's ongoing development effort includes the TrueType Open specification. TrueType Open will work on any Microsoft platform and Apple Macintosh machine, and includes features to allow multi-lingual typesetting and fine typographic control.
The next extension to the TrueType Open format is to be TrueType Open version 2, a collaborative effort with Adobe Systems to produce a format capable of containing both TrueType (and Open) and PostScript data.
What is TrueType?
TrueType is a digital font technology designed by Apple Computer, and now used by both Apple and Microsoft in their operating systems. Microsoft has distributed millions of quality TrueType fonts in hundreds of different styles, including them in its range of products and the popular TrueType Font Packs.
TrueType fonts offer the highest possible quality on computer screens and printers, and include a range of features which make them easy to use.
The history of TrueType's development is discussed briefly in our document, which explains the various incarnations of the technology, as well as some of the reasons TrueType exists at all.
What do I need in order to use TrueType?
The TrueType font technology consists of two components: the themselves, which come in many thousands of different styles, and can be purchased individually or in collections from font manufacturers; and the , a piece of software built into System 7.x on the Apple Macintosh range of computers, and also into Microsoft's Windows family of operating systems.
Both components - the font and the rasterizer, are necessary to display and print TrueType fonts on a computer system. It is the interaction between the TrueType fonts, the TrueType rasterizer and the software program in which the TrueType font is used that determines the appearance of the letterforms in the font.
Where can I get TrueType from?
If you're using a Mac or a Windows machine, the chances are that you're already using the TrueType rasterizer and the TrueType fonts both Apple and Microsoft include with the basic operating system. In fact, unless you've actually installed another font technology, everything you're now seeing on the screen and on your printer will be TrueType!
If you're using Apple Macintosh or Windows based computers, all you need to do is purchase the fonts you want to use. Our section provides World Wide Web addresses for vendors of TrueType fonts.
What is ClearType?
ClearType is a software technology developed by Microsoft that improves the readability of text on existing LCDs (Liquid Crystal Displays), such as laptop screens, Pocket PC screens and flat panel monitors. With ClearType font technology, the words on your computer screen look almost as sharp and clear as those printed on a piece of paper.
ClearType works by accessing the individual vertical color stripe elements in every pixel of an LCD screen. Before ClearType, the smallest level of detail that a computer could display was a single pixel, but with ClearType running on an LCD monitor, we can now display features of text as small as a fraction of a pixel in width. The extra resolution increases the sharpness of the tiny details in text display, making it much easier to read over long durations.
How did Microsoft come to develop ClearType?
ClearType builds upon a tradition of dedication to high-quality font technology at Microsoft. Since the early nineties, Microsoft has continued to improve its display and font capabilities, including the further development of TrueType font technology originally licensed from Apple. Looking to further improve Microsoft's font rendering technology, Microsoft researchers spent more than two years sifting through a large amount of research related to both typography and the psychology of reading. They concluded that reading is a form of pattern recognition. People become immersed in reading only when word recognition is a subconscious task and the conscious mind is free to read the text for meaning.
What was discovered is that word recognition is only subconscious when typographical elements such as the shape and weight of letterforms, and the spacing between letters work together to present words as easily recognized patterns. With these findings in mind, Microsoft began taking a closer look literally at how type was being rendered on screens.
How does ClearType display technology work?
To understand how ClearType works, one first has to understand what makes an LCD screen different from other types of displays. Most screens created images made up of pixels, which when magnified look like single squares. The equivalent of one pixel on an LCD screen is actually composed of three sub-pixels: one red, one green, and one blue (R-G-B). Seen together, these sub-pixel triplets combine to be seen by the human eye as a single pixel.
If we were to look at a single pixel, our eye would see it as in the illustration above. However, if we were to magnify the image, we would see that each pixel is actually made up of three separate subpixels. And so, if when we see white on an LCD screen, we are really looking at red, green and blue stripes.
How does this help improve the quality of digital type display?
Traditional computer font rendering assumes that each pixel is either 'on' or 'off', appearing as tiny black squares. Letters appear jagged on the computer screen because they are formed from many of these tiny squares or pixels. Traditional grayscaling assumes that each pixel has no internal structure, so it smooths the jagged edges but sacrifices edge sharpness. ClearType knows that LCDs are made up of colored sub-pixels. ClearType uses a model of the human visual system to choose the brightness values of the sub-pixels. With ClearType, letters on the computer screen appear smooth, not jagged, yet the edges remain sharp.
OpenType® is a new cross-platform font file format developed jointly by Adobe and Microsoft. Adobe has converted the entire Adobe Type Library into this format and now offers thousands of OpenType fonts.
The two main benefits of the OpenType format are its cross-platform compatibility (the same font file works on Macintosh and Windows computers), and its ability to support widely expanded character sets and layout features, which provide richer linguistic support and advanced typographic control.
The OpenType format is an extension of the TrueType SFNT format that also can support Adobe® PostScript® font data and new typographic features. OpenType fonts containing PostScript data, such as those in the Adobe Type Library, have an .otf suffix in the font file name, while TrueType-based OpenType fonts have a .ttf file name suffix.
OpenType fonts can include an expanded character set and layout features, providing broader linguistic support and more precise typographic control. Feature-rich Adobe OpenType fonts can be distinguished by the word "Pro," which is part of the font name and appears in application font menus. OpenType fonts can be installed and used alongside PostScript Type 1 and TrueType fonts.
OpenType Better Fonts for Graphic Communicators.
Not all fonts are created equal. Some fonts work better than others – depending on how and where you work. In the past, the majority of the professional quality fonts purchased for traditional design and publishing were PostScript Type 1. If, however, you worked in a corporate environment, or if you used a Windows machine or did a lot of Internet publishing, then you more than likely used TrueType fonts. Both font formats have advantages and disadvantages – depending upon your needs.
Up to this point, TrueType fonts held the most advantages for on–screen use, while high–resolution imaging has been the domain of Type 1 fonts. Now OpenType, a new font format, can give you the best of both worlds.
What is OpenType?
Developed jointly by Microsoft and Adobe and supported by Monotype Imaging’s compression technology, OpenType provides a series of enhancements to the TrueType format, the most significant of which allows PostScript font data to nest inside a TrueType software “wrapper.”
What is PostScript Fonts?
A page description language (PDL) developed by Adobe Systems. PostScript is primarily a language for printing on laser printers, but it can be adapted to produce images on other types of devices. PostScript is the standard for desktop publishing because it is supported by imagesetters, the very high-resolution printers used by service bureaus to produce camera-ready copy.
PostScript is an object-oriented language, meaning that it treats images, including fonts, as collections of geometrical objects rather than as bit maps. PostScript fonts are called outline fonts because the outline of each character is defined. They are also called scalable fonts because their size can be changed with PostScript commands. Given a single typeface definition, a PostScript printer can thus produce a multitude of fonts. In contrast, many non-PostScript printers represent fonts with bit maps. To print a bit-mapped typeface with different sizes, these printers require a complete set of bit maps for each size.
The principal advantage of object-oriented (vector) graphics over bit-mapped graphics is that object-oriented images take advantage of high-resolution output devices whereas bit-mapped images do not. A PostScript drawing looks much better when printed on a 600-dpi printer than on a 300-dpi printer. A bit-mapped image looks the same on both printers.
Every PostScript printer contains a built-in interpreter that executes PostScript instructions. If your laser printer does not come with PostScript support, you may be able to purchase a cartridge that contains PostScript.
There are three basic versions of PostScript: Level 1, Level 2 and PostScript 3. Level 2 PostScript, which was released in 1992, has better support for color printing. PostScript 3, release in 1997, supports more fonts, better graphics handling, and includes several features to speed up PostScript printing.
Postscript and TrueType... what's the difference?
Not much, really. Postscript fonts use an algebraic function of cubic polynomials whereas TrueType uses a quadratic polynomial. TrueType may be faster in the printing process but as computer processors get faster that difference will soon be unnoticeable. The real difference lies in how the fonts are managed by the computer. TrueType fonts contain complete packs of information on the fonts, while Postscript fonts contain some information, but the brains are located within the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) -- free if you purchase any of Adobe's programs.